<h3>Contribution description</h3>
<p>This PR allows the use of an Arduino library in RIOT applications without the need for an Arduino sketch. For this purpose it introduces a new pseudomodule <code>arduino_lib</code>. This pseudomodule enables implicitly module <code>arduino</code> but avoids that a sketch is required or generated and compiled. Thus, it becomes possible just to compile and use a package or a directory with some source files from an Arduino library in RIOT applications without having an Arduino sketch.</p>
<p>The test app demonstrates how to import and use an Arduino library as packages using a very simple Arduino library for on-board LED flashing sequences. For this purpose, the PR contains the package <code>talking_leds</code>.</p>
<p>In addition, this PR introduces the Arduino standard header file <code>Arduino.h</code> and the data types <code>boolean</code> and <code>byte</code> to improvethe compatibility of <code>sys/arduino</code> with Arduino libraries and applications.</p>
<h3>Testing procedure</h3>
<p>Compile and flash <code>tests/arduino_lin</code>:</p>
<pre><code>make -C tests/arduino_lib/ BOARD=... flash
</code></pre>
<p>The integrated LED should flash in a loop twice short and twice long.</p>
<h3>Issues/PRs references</h3>

<hr>

<h4>You can view, comment on, or merge this pull request online at:</h4>
<p>  <a href='https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180'>https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180</a></p>

<h4>Commit Summary</h4>
<ul>
  <li>sys/arduino: add Arduino.h for compatibility</li>
  <li>sys/arduino: add type definitions often used</li>
  <li>sys/arduino: compilation of Arduino libraries</li>
  <li>tests/arduino_lib: demo the use of Arduino library</li>
</ul>

<h4>File Changes</h4>
<ul>
  <li>
    <strong>M</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-0">Makefile.dep</a>
    (4)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>M</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-1">makefiles/pseudomodules.inc.mk</a>
    (1)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>A</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-2">pkg/talking_leds/Makefile</a>
    (11)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>A</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-3">pkg/talking_leds/Makefile.include</a>
    (3)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>A</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-4">pkg/talking_leds/Makefile.talking_leds</a>
    (3)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>A</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-5">pkg/talking_leds/doc.txt</a>
    (6)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>M</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-6">sys/arduino/Makefile.include</a>
    (20)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>A</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-7">sys/arduino/include/Arduino.h</a>
    (33)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>M</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-8">sys/arduino/include/arduino.hpp</a>
    (17)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>A</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-9">tests/arduino_lib/Makefile</a>
    (9)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>A</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-10">tests/arduino_lib/README.md</a>
    (8)
  </li>
  <li>
    <strong>A</strong>
    <a href="https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180/files#diff-11">tests/arduino_lib/main.cpp</a>
    (41)
  </li>
</ul>

<h4>Patch Links:</h4>
<ul>
  <li><a href='https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180.patch'>https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180.patch</a></li>
  <li><a href='https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180.diff'>https://github.com/RIOT-OS/RIOT/pull/12180.diff</a></li>
</ul>

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